ATENÇÃO: NÃO É PARA DISCUTIR E SIM PARA TRADUZIR. MENCIONE O PEDAÇO (OU OS PEDAÇOS) QUE VOCÊ TRADUZIU E PUBLIQUE A TRADUÇÃO NO CAMPO DE COMENTÁRIOS.
FP — At another moment, you write that you want to change the values of the global economic network. How do you do that?
FC — This is one area where I can illustrate the power of my theoretical framework. Because I have included meaning, values, culture, consciousness, etc., right from the start, I can use my theoretical framework to analyze the global economy, and values are a crucial part of that analysis. Others cannot do that that. When ask them, "what about values?" -- they would say: "that's not my domain; I'm a scientist," or something like that. So, what I am saying, following Manuel Castells, is that the global economy is organized around networks of financial flows.
There is a global network of computers that allow investors and speculators to invest their money anywhere in the world into any project, any economy, in any country and to withdraw it immediately if they feel like investing it somewhere else. These are processes that happen within minutes, within seconds. So there is a global, electronic casino going on, with billions of dollars sloshing around the planet every day.
In order for this to happen smoothly, in order not to impede these global financial flows, certain rules have to be maintained. These are the so-called "free-trade rules" imposed by the World Trade Organization. And here is one value that is underlying these various complex rules of the neo-liberal economic theory. The one value is that making money is always better than anything else. So, when there is a conflict between making more money or protecting human rights, taking into account health considerations, protecting the environment, protecting democracy, or whatever other values we have, making money is always more important for the WTO and therefore it has to take preference. This value is programmed into today's global economy. It's a single value, a quintessentially capitalist value.
What I propose, together with many colleagues, is to change the value system and to incorporate a certain minimal ethic into this global network. To say, for example, that workers, all over the world need to be paid living wages. That does not mean that they will be paid the same. You can argue that the living wage in Indonesia is less than in Chile or other parts of the world. But the principle is an ethical principle, that living wages should be paid. Another would be that toxic substances should be handled with certain care. That certain health considerations should be taken into account, and so on.
There are already values that are sort of on the margin: that you will not trade in endangered species, for example. There are NGOs who have developed a whole set of new rules that would expand these values.
FP — I think I understand the rules you have in mind. The problem is "how do you change the rules?"
FC — I think that can be addressed only politically. Technically, it is absolutely possible to reprogram the global economy according to different values.