Escola de Redes




Grupo para reunir e estudar textos sobre conectivismo como nova teoria da aprendizagem na sociedade em rede

Membros: 35
Última atividade: 17 Out, 2016


Uma boa tarefa: traduzir colaborativamente os textos abaixo (tal como fizemos com o primeiro do SIEMENS: 2008).


SIEMENS, George (2008): Uma breve história da aprendizagem em rede | Versão preliminar

DOWNES, Stephen (n/d): eBOOKS

KOP, Rita & HILL, Adrian (2008): Connectivism: learning theory of the future or vestige of the past

SIEMENS, George (2008): Learning and knowing in networks

KERR, Bill (2007): A challenge to Connectivism

DOWNES, Stephen (2007): What connectivism is

SIEMENS, George (2007): Missing the connection

SIEMENS, George (2007): Situating Connectivism

DOWNES, Stephen (2006): Learning networks and connective knowledge

SIEMENS, George (2006): Connectivism: learning theory or pastime for self-amused?

VERHAGEN, Plon (2006): Connectivism: a new learning theory?

DOWNES, Stephen (2005): An introduction to connective knowledge

SIEMENS, George (2005): Connectivism: learning as network-creation

SIEMENS, George (2004): Conectivismo: una teoría de aprendizaje para la era digital. Versão em português

Fórum de discussão

Historial de DFIII


Iniciado por Orlando António Adelino 15 Mar, 2016.


O Giovanni Bianco achou um dos primeiros textos do George Siemens (2004). Continuar

Iniciado por Augusto de Franco 26 Fev, 2016.

What is Connectivism? Week 1: CCK09

George Siemens, September 12, 2009 …Continuar

Iniciado por Augusto de Franco 21 Jan, 2011.

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Comentário de Augusto de Franco em 16 setembro 2012 às 5:33


Comentário de Augusto de Franco em 28 agosto 2011 às 16:15
Não Vivi. Testei todos agora. Aqui tudo é Good request, hehe.
Comentário de Vivianne Amaral em 28 agosto 2011 às 12:02

A biblioteca está com algum problema? Os textos não estão mais disponíveis.  Quando tento acessar aparece esta msg: 400 Bad request.



Comentário de Augusto de Franco em 12 agosto 2011 às 11:57

George Siemens - if social media goes so does connectivism

Donald Clark in DONALD CLARK PLAN B (02/08/2011)

So George Siemens has lost interest in social media as “there is no there there” (plagiarising Gertrude Stein). Now I’m not an uncritical zealot when it comes to social media and have spoken out against the hype, but to claim there’s no substance at all to social media is wrong.

First he makes the general statement, “Social media=emotions”. I assume he means that social media only results in the emotional outpourings from the participants. So when I get invites to speak, write, exchange views, follow up links to useful blog pieces/articles/academic papers, read reviews and then go to movies/theatre, share photographs, rediscover old friends and meet up, keep in touch with distant relatives – it’s just a well of emotional mush? What George fails to understand is the fact that the networked world is causally connected to the real world. Real things happen in the real world because we communicate through these networks.

Siemens use of Facebook and Twitter seems to have been limited to, “attending to my emotive needs of being connected to people when I’m traveling and whining”. A bad workman blames his tools and if he sees Facebook and Twitter as ‘posting only’ media, forgetting that there’s groups, messaging and other features that are widely used for practical purposes, that’s his loss.

Connectivism not really there?

I should say from the start that I never bought Connectivism, as it muddles up primitive epistemology, dated social psychology and pedagogy to produce a nexus of thinly connected ideas around an abstract noun. Not for the first time have such vague, unsubstantiated ideas gained currency among educators. For me, the real problem is duplicity. Surely he's thrown out hisconnectivist baby with the bathwater of abandoned social media. So much for the idea of knowledge existing in the world of real activity by real people. Surely that also means 750 million onFacebook and hundreds of millions of learners on Twitter and other social media. And so much for the whole idea of creating a network for learning – unless, of course, that must mean George’s blog, online courses and speaking engagements. In a stroke Siemens has banished the largest and most potent networks on the planet to the dead zone, and with it connectivism.


So what’s his solution? “The substance needs to exist somewhere else (an academic profile, journal articles, blogs, online courses” says George. He means, of course, ‘the academy’, namely academia and academics. George’s problem is to imagine that the academy is the focus of all intellectual and important activity. The conceit is the idea that if it ain’t about institutional learning it ain’t worth it. It’s an academic conceit that we all want to be lifelong learners taking their courses, attending their lectures, signing up for their online courses and hanging on their every word. Most of us couldn’t wait to get out of school and college, and wouldn’t dream of going back. Not leaving school at all is fine, but it doesn’t give you the right to look down upon others just because they don’t write academic articles and aren’t part of those networks. After nearly 30 years in the learning game, I truly believe that little has emerged from academia in terms of innovation, pedagogy and good practice. Indeed they themselves seem stuck in a primitive pedagogy that depends on lectures (which they will defend to the death). Time to move on.

Social media and politics

He ridicules Jeff Jarvis’s comments on the political power of thehashtag but the University of Athabasca ain’t Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain, Yemen or Syria. Academics like Siemens can afford to disconnect because, to caricature Kissinger, “the stakes are so small.” “The notion of the Arab Spring being about social media is similarly misguided” says Siemens. Well, one can sit in some University somewhere and make these generalisations but YouTube, Twitter and Facebook have, and continue, to play a serious causal role in these revolutions. It's something I'm convinced of after travelling and speaking to young people in these countries. People are dying for their rights and using these media to achieve real political change and it's an insult for ill-informed academics to reduce this to an off-hand comment about it being 'misguided'.


Let me end with a real story about Facebook. Jan Kaufman, a learning expert, had a stroke last year, and we watched with astonishment as she at first typed garbled posts, then over the following year got better by drawing nourishment from her friends on Facebook. She was inspirational and genuinely thinks that social media contributed to her recovery. We, in turn, learnt loads about what it really means to have a stroke, hospital life, claiming benefits and recovering cognitive skills. If George wants to dismiss this as useless ‘emotion’, he’s making a big mistake. It was a genuine learning experience for me, Jan and many of her friends. Social networks are, for him, “void of substance”. I fear, however, that it is Siemen’s arguments that are void of substance.

Comentário de Vivianne Amaral em 30 junho 2011 às 12:30

Encontrei alguma coisa em português:


Comentário de Augusto de Franco em 21 janeiro 2011 às 6:09

#cck11: Connectivism and Social Constructivism – what’s the differe...

So what distinguishes a connectivist perspective from social constructivism? The difference is fairly subtle. As far as I can see, connectivism resonates with similar principles as social constructivism does, but acknowledges a greater degree of complexity in the nature of knowledge and learning, enabled by advances in technology.

George Siemens defines ‘complex’ phenomena as different from ‘complicated’ phenomena. He uses the examples of an aeroplane, which encompasses a number of systems that are carefully engineered to interact with each other in a particular way, and the planet’s weather – truly complex due to the interaction of predictable and less predictable factors.

Connectivism acknowledges the complexity of knowledge and learning in a way that social constructivism cannot. A central tenet of social constructivism is the definition of knowledge as the result of consensus. The connectivist perspective allows for a greater diversity of opinions, and acceptance of transience and unpredictability of knowledge.

The dependence on a large number of ‘weak ties’ in knowledge networks is another particular characteristic of the connectivist perspective, whereas the social constructivist perspective describes a type of networked learning that is perhaps narrower in scope and intention, and where the participants are perhaps more conscious of the part they play in the exchange and creation of knowledge.

The least woolly of the distinctions has to be the connectivist notion of knowledge and learning existing outside the individual human brain. With technology performing the roles of information storage and retrieval, our collective knowledge has the potential to develop into a seemingly infinite web of nodes and connections. The mechanics of the system mean that these nodes are players in a competition for connections that we are barely conscious of.

This connectivist view of the ‘behaviour’ of knowledge reminds me of the evolutionary biologists’ view of the ‘behaviour’ of genes. Our genes influence what we do, with a view to increasing their own chances of survival; however, as individuals we are barely conscious of this relationship (and our genes are not conscious of anything!). In a similar way, the nodes in a knowledge network, that are created by – and form part of – ourselves, unconsciously compete for survival (i.e. connections). George suggests “the pipe is more important than the content of the pipe”. It’s the same situation with genes. The structure of DNA (the ‘pipe’) incorporates a replication mechanism with just the right degree of imperfection to enable the evolution of all living things from single cells to complex (complicated?!) and highly-specialised organisms. Much as we would like to believe we, as organisms, are the important ones, we’re actually just transient content – an effective host for our DNA at this point in time.


I'm Lindsay Jordan, Lecturer in Learning and Teaching at the University of the Arts London.

This blog is written primarily for my own reflection but if you want to roll up your sleeves and jump in with a comment or a pingback you will be welcomed with open arms.
Comentário de Augusto de Franco em 20 janeiro 2011 às 3:23

About this glossary = Connectivism

This is a glossary of terms used in connectivism to help define how they they differ from the dictionary definitions and other learning theories. This glossary is currently under development as part of the CCK09 course. Please help to improve.

[edit]Alphabetical index of terms


A central concept of connectivism. "learning, knowledge and understanding [can be amplified] through the extension of a personal network" (Siemens 2005)

[edit]capacity to know

This is the potential that exists in a learner and their connections. It "is more critical than what is currently known" (Siemens 2005)


A measure of the importance of a node in a network. Degree centrality - the number of direct connections a node has - a well connected node - a busy hub. Betweenness centrality - a calculation of how 'between' constituencies or groups of nodes a particular node is - a broker node or 'boundary spanner'. Closeness centrality - nodes with short connections - nodes best placed to monitor information flow. (Krebs 2008)


"A connection is a link between two entities [in a network] such that a change of state in one entity may result in a change of state in the second entity." (Downes 2009) These connections are where knowledge and understanding are represented and they may be at a neuronal level within a person's brain, at a social level between people, groups of people and other entities in the network. (Siemens 2009)

[edit]connections, making

"Connections form naturally, through a process of association, and are not 'constructed' through some sort of intentional action." (Downes 2007)

[edit]connective knowledge

"connective knowledge is knowledge of the connection. If Janet votes a certain way because I told her to, an interaction has taken place and a connection has been established. The knowledge thus observed consists not in how Janet and I will vote, nor in how many of us will vote, but rather, in the observation that there is this type of connection between myself and Janet." (Downes 2005)


"is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision." (Siemens 2005)


Are choices that learners make and "are based on rapidly altering foundations. New information is continually being acquired. The ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant information is vital. The ability to recognize when new information alters the landscape based on decisions made yesterday is also critical." (Siemens 2005)


"an ecology, habitat, or studio is simply the space for fostering connections. Networks occur within something. They are influenced by the environment and context of an organization, school, or classroom. Certain ecologies are more conducive to forming connections. ... Connection barriers are aspects of an ecology. ... The nature of the ecology influences the ease, type, and health of networks created." (Siemens 2007a)

[edit]emergence / emergent property

"is interpretation applied to connections" like the wave made by a line of falling dominoes (perceiving connections as a distinct whole) or the the image of a face from a picture composed of pixels (perceiving a distinct whole but interpreting it as a series of connections). The emergent property is the interpretation of the connections (i.e. between the dominoes or the pixels). (Downes 2005)


It is difficult to define group as used in connectivism, since Siemens and Downes use the term somewhat differently. Downes distinguishes groups from networks along four axes: unity/diversity, coordination/autonomy, closed/openness, distributive/connective.[1][2] On the other hand, Siemens sees groups as a type of network, seeing the distinction as 'unfair'.[3]However, in the network science sense, a group is a particular type of network. Downes talks more about how groups are distinct from networks and Siemens talks about how groups are a particular sub-type of networks.

[edit]half-life of knowledge

"the [shrinking] time span from when knowledge is gained to when it becomes obsolete. Half of what is known today was not known 10 years ago." (Siemens 2005 quoting Gonzalez)


"Within social networks, hubs are well-connected people who are able to foster and maintain knowledge flow. Their interdependence results in effective knowledge flow, enabling the personal understanding of the state of activities organizationally." (Siemens 2005)

[edit]informal learning

"Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks." (Siemens 2005)


In Connectivism knowledge is not thought to be propositional. "knowledge is distributed across a network of connections ... knowledge is not acquired, as though it were a thing ... Knowledge is ... literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience." (Downes 2007). In the individual there is no place where 'Paris is the capital of France' is stored. The knowledge is represented by the connections between neurones. Similarly where is the knowledge stored that has been learnt by a society? (Downes 2009)

[edit]knowledge cycle

"Personal knowledge is comprised of a network, which feeds into organizations and institutions, which in turn feed back into the network, and then continue to provide learning to individual. This cycle of knowledge development (personal to network to organization) allows learners to remain current in their field through the connections they have formed." (Siemens 2005)


"Learning is a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing." ... "Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. Learning may reside in non-human appliances." (Siemens 2005). "learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse ... networks" (Downes 2007)


"Meaning-making is the foundation of action and reformation of view points, perspectives, and opinions." (Siemens 2006)


"A network can simply be defined as connections between entities. Computer networks, power grids, and social networks all function on the simple principle that people, groups, systems, nodes, entities can be connected to create an integrated whole. Alterations within the network have ripple effects on the whole." (Siemens 2005). It is an expression of structure such as the constellation of connections that enable the movement of an arm, or those that define a particular memory. Adding or modifying nodes in that structure may lead to a ripple of changes in other parts of the network [which then represents the expression of a new structure]. (Siemens 2009)


An entity in a network with connections. This could be an individual neuronal pattern within a person, the person themselves, a group of people, a computer, the output of a computer / website etc. "Nodes (can be fields, ideas, communities) that specialize and gain recognition for their expertise have greater chances of recognition, thus resulting in cross-pollination of learning communities." (Siemens 2005)

[edit]pattern recognition

A skill acquired by learners that allows them to make decisions and learn from their network. "The value of pattern recognition and connecting our own “small worlds of knowledge” are apparent in the exponential impact provided to our personal learning." (Siemens 2005)

[edit]Personal learning environment (PLE)

A shortcut to an individual's connections. For example this could be shortcuts for a particular course or an aggregation of content

[edit]Personal learning network

"Most of us belong to more than one learning community. These multiple communities form a personal learning network. If a learning community equates somewhat with a course, then our learning network is equivalent to a degree program. Each community is a node on the network." Siemens 2003. The origin of the term is discussed by Downes in his blog.


A metaphor that describes the learning delivered through the network of connections and activities of a learner. Siemens uses it to highlight that the connections are more important [for tomorrow] than what you learn from them [today]. "The pipe is more important than the content within the pipe. Our ability to learn what we need for tomorrow is more important than what we know today". (Siemens 2005)


"Praxis, as a cyclical process of reflection, experimentation, and action, allows the learner to critically evaluate the tools, processes, and elements of an ecology or network." (Siemens 2006)

[edit]taxonomy (of connectivism)

"a staged view of how learners encounter and explore learning in a networked/ecological manner (the taxonomy begins with the basic and moves to the more complex): Awareness and receptivity, Connection-forming, Contribution and involvement, Pattern recognition, Meaning-making, Praxis" (Siemens 2006)


"understanding is an emergent property of a network" (Siemens 2007b)


Downes S. (2005) An Introduction to Connective Knowledge

Downes S. (2007) What Connectivism Is

Krebs V. (2008) Social Network Analysis

Siemens G. (2003) Learning communities and learning networks

Siemens G. (2005) Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age

Siemens G. (2006) Connectivism Taxonomy

Siemens G. (2007a) Networks, Ecologies, and Curatorial Teaching

Siemens G. (2007b) Helsinki Seminar June 2007

Siemens G. & Downes S. (2009) CCK09 Elluminate discussion 17th September 2009


  1.  Downes, S. (2006). Groups and networks
  2.  Downes, S. (2007).Groups vs networks: The class struggle continues
  3.  Siemens, G. (2008). Groups and networks.

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